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The religion was inspired by Persian worship of the god Mithra proto-Indo-Iranian Mitrathough the Greek Mithras was linked to a new and distinctive imagery, and the level of continuity between Persian and Greco-Roman practice is debated.
Initiates called themselves syndexioithose "united by the handshake". The cult appears to have had its centre in Rome. Interpretation of the physical evidence remains problematic and contested. The term "Mithraism" is a modern convention, orion dating app wiki.
Writers of the Roman era referred to it by phrases such as "Mithraic mysteries", "mysteries of Mithras" or "mysteries of the Persians". There have been many attempts to interpret this material. Mithras-worship in the Roman Empire was characterized by images of the god slaughtering a bull. Other images of Mithras are found in the Roman temples, orion dating app wiki, for instance Mithras banqueting with Sol, and depictions of the birth of Mithras from a rock.
But the image of bull-slaying tauroctony is always in the central niche. The practice canadian dating app depicting the god slaying a bull seems to be specific to Roman Mithraism.
According to David Ulansey, this is "perhaps the most important example" of evident difference between Iranian and Roman traditions: ". As he does so, he looks over his shoulder towards orion dating app wiki figure of Sol. A dog and a snake reach up towards the blood. A raven is flying around or is sitting on the bull.
The bull was often white. Outside the cavern, top left, is Sol the sun, with his flaming crown, often driving a quadriga. A ray of light often reaches down to touch Mithras.
At the top right is Lunawith her crescent moon, who may be depicted driving a biga. On the back side was another, more elaborate feasting scene. This indicates that the bull killing scene was used in the first part of the celebration, then the relief was turned, and the second scene was used in the second part of the celebration. Robert Turcan has argued that since the caduceus is an attribute of Mercuryand in mythology Mercury is depicted as a psychopompthe eliciting of flames in this scene is referring to the dispatch of human souls and expressing the Mithraic doctrine on this matter.
He is shown as emerging from a rock, already in his youth, with orion dating app wiki dagger in one hand and a torch in the other. He is nude, standing with his legs together, and is wearing a Phrygian cap.
Sometimes he is shown as coming out of the rock as a child, and in one instance he has a globe in one hand; sometimes a thunderbolt is seen, orion dating app wiki. One statue had its base perforated so that it could serve as a fountain, and the base of another has the mask of the water god. Sometimes Mithras also has other weapons such as bows and arrows, and there are also animals such as dogs, orion dating app wiki, serpents, dolphinseagles, other birds, lion, crocodiles, lobsters and snails around.
On some reliefs, there is a bearded figure identified as Oceanusthe water god, and on some there are the gods of the four winds, orion dating app wiki. In these reliefs, the four elements could be invoked together. Sometimes Victoria, LunaSol and Saturn also seem to play a role.
Saturn in particular is often seen handing over the dagger to Mithras so that he can perform his mighty deeds.
Some interpretations show that the birth of Mithras was celebrated by lighting torches or candles. He is usually represented as having four wings, two keys sometimes a single keyand a scepter in his hand.
Sometimes the figure is standing on a globe inscribed with a diagonal cross. In the figure shown here, the four wings carry the symbols of the four seasons, and a thunderbolt is engraved on the breast. At the base of the statue are the hammer and tongs of Vulcanthe cockand the wand of Mercury.
A variation the same figure, but with a human head instead of the lion-mask, is also found, but is rare. These tend to include both animal bones and also very large quantities of fruit residues. Mithraic feasts probably performed a very similar function for Mithraists as the collegia did for those entitled to join them; indeed, since qualification for Roman collegia tended to be restricted to particular families, localities or traditional trades, Mithraism may have functioned in part as providing clubs for the unclubbed.
Burned residues of animal entrails are commonly found on the main altars indicating regular sacrificial use. Prayers were addressed to the Sun three times a day, and Sunday was especially sacred. It is known that intitates could transfer with their grades from one Mithraeum to another, orion dating app wiki.
In cities, the basement of an apartment block might be converted; elsewhere they might be excavated and vaulted orion dating app wiki, or converted from a natural cave, orion dating app wiki. The Mithraeum represented the cave to which Mithras carried and then killed the bull; and where stone vaulting could not be afforded, the effect would be imitated with lath and plaster. They are commonly located close to springs or streams; fresh water appears to have been required for some Mithraic rituals, and a basin is often incorporated into the structure.
The extant mithraea present us with actual physical remains of the architectural structures of the sacred spaces of the Mithraic cult. Mithraeum is a modern coinage and mithraists referred to their sacred structures as speleum or antrum cavecrypta underground hallway or corridororion dating app wiki, fanum sacred or holy placeor even templum a temple or a sacred space.
In the standard pattern of Roman religious precincts, the temple building functioned as a house for the god, who was intended to be able to view through the opened doors and columnar portico, sacrificial worship being offered on an altar set in an open courtyard; potentially accessible not only to initiates of the cult, but also to colitores or non-initiated worshippers. A mosaic in the Ostia Mithraeum of Felicissimus depicts these grades, with symbolic emblems that are connected either to the grades or are just symbols of the planets.
The grades also have an inscription beside them commending each grade into the protection of the different planetary gods. At Virunum, the membership list or album sacratorum was maintained as an inscribed plaque, updated year by year as new members were initiated.
By cross-referencing these lists it is sometimes possible to track initiates from one Mithraeum to another; and also speculatively to identify Mithraic initiates with persons on other contemporary lists such as military service rolls, of lists of devotees of non-Mithraic religious sanctuaries.
Names of initiates are also found in the dedication inscriptions of altars and other cult objects. Gordon maintains the former theory of Merkelbach and others, especially noting such examples as Dura where all names are associated with a Mithraic grade. Some scholars maintain that practice may have differed over time, or from one Mithraeum to another. The highest grade, pateris far the most common found on dedications and inscriptions — and it would appear not to have been unusual for a mithraeum to have several persons with this grade.
The form pater patrum father of fathers is often found, which appears to indicate the pater with primary status. It has been suggested that some Mithraea may have awarded honorary pater status to sympathetic dignitaries. Accounts of the cruelty of the emperor Commodus describes his amusing himself by enacting Mithriac initiation ordeals in homicidal form.
Admission into the community was completed with a handshake with the paterjust as Mithras and Sol shook hands.
The initiates were thus referred to as syndexioi — " those united by the handshake ". On the cup, the initiate is depicted as being led into a location where a Pater would be seated in the guise of Mithras with a drawn bow. Accompanying the initiate is a mystagoguewho explains the symbolism and theology to the initiate. Roger Beck has hypothesized a third processional Mithraic ritual, based on the Mainz cup and Porphyrys. This so-called Procession of the Sun-Runner features the Heliodromusescorted by two figures representing Cautes and Cautopates see below and preceded by an initiate of the grade Miles leading a ritual enactment of the solar journey around the mithraeum, which was intended to represent the cosmos.
A noticeable feature of this narrative and of its regular depiction in surviving sets of relief carvings is the complete absence of female personages.
Historians including Cumont and Richard Gordon have concluded that the cult was for men only. Geden writes that this may be due to a misunderstanding. Barnett has argued that orion dating app wiki royal seal of King Saussatar of Mitanni from c.
Vermaseren, the Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae or CIMRM. There is no date, but the inscription tells us that it was dedicated by a certain Alcimus, steward of T. These may be the earliest tauroctonies, if they are accepted to be a depiction of Mithras. Pietro e Marcellino on the Esquiline in Rome was inscribed with a bilingual inscription by an Imperial freedman named T. It is dedicated to Sol Invictus Mithras. Dio Cassius writes that Tiridates, as he was about to receive his crown, told the Roman emperor that he revered him "as Mithras".
To Zoroaster, this cave was an image of the whole world, so he consecrated it to Mithras, the creator of the world. Later in the same work, Porphyry links Make dating app and the bull with planets and star-signs: Mithras himself is associated with the sign of Aries and the planet Marswhile the bull is associated with Venus. He identified the ancient Aryan deity who appears in Persian literature as Mithras with the Hindu god Mitra of the Vedic hymns.
It receives no support from the Iranian material and is in fact in conflict with the ideas of that tradition as they are represented in the extant texts. Above all, it is a theoretical reconstruction which does not accord with the actual Roman iconography. Gordon argued that Cumont severely distorted the available evidence by forcing the material to conform to his predetermined model of Zoroastrian origins. Gordon suggested that the theory of Persian origins was completely invalid and that the Mithraic mysteries in the West was an entirely new creation.
Martin: "Apart from the name of the god himself, in other words, Mithraism seems to have developed largely in and is, therefore, best understood from the context of Roman culture. She also says that "the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary references to them.
This indeed is the main line of Mithraic scholarship, the Cumontian model which subsequent scholars accept, modify, or reject. For the transmission of Iranian doctrine from East to West, Cumont postulated a plausible, if hypothetical, intermediary: the Magusaeans of the Iranian diaspora in Anatolia. More problematic — and never properly addressed by Cumont or his successors — is how real-life Roman Mithraists subsequently maintained a quite complex and sophisticated Iranian theology behind an occidental facade.
Firstly, because it looks again at Anatolia and Anatolians, and more importantly, orion dating app wiki, because it hews back to the methodology first used by Cumont. The myths, he suggests, were probably created in the milieu of the imperial bureaucracy, and for its members. Beck calls this "the most likely scenario" and states "Until now, Mithraism has generally been treated as if it somehow evolved Topsy -like from its Iranian precursor — a most implausible scenario once it is stated explicitly.
Hopfe notes that there are only three Mithraea in Roman Syriain contrast to further west. He writes: "Archaeology indicates that Roman Mithraism had its epicenter in Rome. This new cosmic motion, he suggests, was seen by the founders of Mithraism as indicating the existence of a powerful new god capable of shifting the cosmic spheres and thereby controlling the universe.
Widengren have variously argued that Roman Mithraism represents a continuation of some form of Iranian Mithra worship, orion dating app wiki. By this time all the key elements of the mysteries were in place. Beck states that "Quite early in the [fourth] century the religion was as good as dead throughout the empire.
Clauss states that inscriptions show Mithras as one of the cults listed on inscriptions by Roman senators who had not converted to Christianity, as part of the "pagan revival" among the elite.
Some Mithraic sanctuaries were destroyed and religion was no longer a matter of personal choice. Orion dating app wiki, in areas like the Rhine frontier, purely religious considerations cannot explain the end of Mithraism and barbarian invasions may also have played a role. These were scattered over the floor when the Mithraeum was destroyed, as Christians apparently regarded the coins as polluted; and they therefore provide reliable dates for the functioning of the Mithraeum.
The cult disappeared earlier than that of Isis. Isis was still remembered in the middle ages as a pagan deity, but Mithras was already forgotten in late antiquity. In this text the evil spirit Ahriman not Mithra slays the primordial creature Gavaevodata which is represented as a bovine. Beck summarizes them in the table below.
He sees iconographic and mythological parallels between the two figures: both are young heroes, carry a dagger and wear a Phrygian cap. He also mentions the similarity of the image of Perseus killing the Gorgon and the tauroctony, both figures being associated with underground caverns and both having connections to Persia as further evidence.
Rather than seeing Mithras as a constellation, Beck argues that Mithras is the prime traveller on the celestial orion dating app wiki represented by the other symbols of the scenethe Unconquered Sun moving through the constellations.
Almost all Mithraea contain statues dedicated to gods of other cults, and it is common to find inscriptions dedicated to Mithras in other sanctuaries, especially those of Jupiter Dolichenus.
He described these rites as a diabolical counterfeit of the baptism and chrismation of Christians. For that bread and a cup of water are in these mysteries set before the initiate with certain speeches you either know or can learn. Alvar Ezquerra holds that since the two religions did orion dating app wiki share similar aims, there was never any real threat of Mithraism taking over the Roman world.
These sites are spread all over the Roman empire from places as far as Dura Europos in the east, and England in the west. He too says that Mithraism may have been a rival of Christianity. For other uses, see Mithras disambiguation.
Main article: Mithras name. Above: Mithras rising from the rock National Museum of Romanian History. Main article: Mithras in comparison with other belief systems. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. The term "Mithraism" is of course a modern coinage. In orion dating app wiki the cult was known as "the mysteries of Mithras"; alternatively, as "the mysteries of the Persians. The Mithraists, who were manifestly not Persians in any ethnic sense, thought of themselves as cultic "Persians.
Porphyry moreover orion dating app wiki to be the only writer who makes reference to women initiates into the service and rites of Mithra, and his allusion is perhaps due to a misunderstanding. The participation of women in the ritual was not unknown in the Eastern cults, but the predominant military orion dating app wiki in Mithraism seems to render it unlikely in this instance.
Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithrasp. Hopfe, "Archaeological indications on the origins of Roman Mithraism", in Lewis M. Uncovering ancient stones: essays in memory of H. Archaeological evidence of Mithraism in Syria is therefore in marked contrast to the abundance of Mithraea and materials that have been located in the rest of the Roman Empire.
Both the frequency and the quality of Mithraic materials is greater in the rest of the empire. Even on the western frontier in Orion dating app wikiarchaeology has produced rich Mithraic materials, such as those found at Walbrook.
Instead, archaeology indicates that Roman Mithraism had its epicenter in Rome. Wherever its ultimate place of origin may have been, the fully developed religion known as Mithraism seems to have begun in Rome and been carried to Syria by soldiers and merchants. None of the Mithraic materials or temples in Roman Syria except the Commagene sculpture bears any date earlier than the late first or early second century.
While little can be proved from silence, it seems that the relative lack of archaeological evidence from Roman Syria would argue against the traditional theories for the origins of Mithraism. We know a good deal about them because archaeology has disinterred many meeting places together with numerous artifacts and representations of the cult myth, mostly in the form of relief sculpture.
The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and his Mysteries. A useful topographic survey, with map, by F. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. However, in the absence of any ancient explanations of its meaning, Mithraic iconography has proven to be exceptionally difficult to decipher. Today more than four hundred locations of Mithraic worship have been identified in every area of the Roman Empire.
Mithraea have been found as far west as Britain and as far east as Dura Europas. Between the second and fourth centuries C. Mithraism may have vied with Christianity for domination of the Roman world. Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies. The Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies EJMS is a revival of the Journal of Mithraic Studies edited by Dr.
It is a place where researchers on Roman Mithraism can publish the product of their research and make it freely available for other interested people. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition.
For most dating app use up the twentieth century the major problem addressed by scholarship on both Roman Mithraism and the Iranian god Mithra was the question of continuity. Mithra is the next most important deity and may even have orion dating app wiki a position of near equality with Ahura Mazde.
He was associated with the Sun, and in time the name Mithra became a common word for "Sun". Mithra functioned preeminently in the ethical sphere; he was the god of the covenant, who oversaw all solemn agreements that people made among themselves. In later times Mithra gave his name to Mithraismorion dating app wiki, a mystery religion. Cited in Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon.
Porphyry, De abstinentia II. Mithras-Orion: Greek hero and Roman army god. But it was in Iran where Mithras rose to the greatest prominence: rebounding after the reforms of Zarathustra, Mithras became one of the great gods of the Achaemenian emperors and to this very day he is worshipped in India and Iran by Parsees and Zarathustrians.
The cults of the Roman Empire. The name Mithras comes from a root mei- which implies the idea of exchangeaccompanied by an instrumental suffix. We find him invoked with Varuna orion dating app wiki an agreement concluded c. It is the earliest evidence of Mithras in Asia Minor. The theory that the complex iconography of the best dating names monuments of which the oldest belong to the second century A. Nevertheless, as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance; and the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary reference to them.
The Roman cult of Mithrasp. The remarkable consistency of this particular feature is underscored by comparison with the subtle variability of others. He is wearing a Phrygian cap and a wind-filled cloak, and, most remarkable of all, his head is turned in the other direction as if he would not look at his own deed. Still, this sacrifice is a guarantee of salvation for the participants.
See also William W. Malandra, Cautes and Cautopates Encyclopedia Iranica article. Hic locus est felix, sanctus, piusque benignus: The cult of Mithras in fourth century Rome,Dissertation for the degree of philosophiae doctor PhD. The figure of Mithras himself is usually attired in an oriental costume of Phrygian cap, tunica manicata a long-sleeved tunicorion dating app wiki, anaxyrides eastern style trousersand a cape, though in some cases, he is depicted heroically nude or even, in a unique example from Ostia, in what seems to be a Greek chiton.
The bull was often white, sometimes wearing the dorsuale, the Roman sacrificial band in reds or browns, while the torchbearers could be depicted in a variety of colors with reds and greens being the most common. The religious context of early Christianity: a guide to Graeco-Roman religions. The Religion of the Mithras cult in the Roman empire. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
Often, the mithraeum was embellished elsewhere with secondary exemplars of the tauroctony, and there also seem to orion dating app wiki been small portable versions, perhaps for private devotion.
The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire. London: Oxford University Press. John R Hinnells, ed. Mithraic studies: proceedings of the first Orion dating app wiki congress of Mithraic studies, Vol II. Manchester University Press ND. According to some, the lion man is Aion Zurvan, or Kronos ; according to others, Ahriman.
Religious diversity in late antiquity. Mithras: mysteries and initiation rediscovered. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, Inc. The statue is a representation of the Leo degree, internalized. The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Pricsa in Rome.
One should bear in mind that the Mithraic New Year began on Natalis Invictithe birthday of their invincible god, i.
For a time, coins and other monuments continued to link Christian doctrines with the worship of the Sun, to which Constantine had been addicted previously. But even when this phase came to an end, Roman paganism continued to exert other, permanent influences, great and diahann-carroll.info ecclesiastical calendar retains numerous remnants of pre-Christian festivals—notably Christmas, which blends elements including both the feast of the Saturnalia and the birthday of Mithra.
Mithras: Kult und Mysterien. Brashear, A Mithraic Catechism from Egypt. The original editor of the text, Albrecht Dieterich, claimed that it recorded an authentic Mithraic ritual, but this claim was rejected by Cumont, who felt that the references to Mithras in the text were merely the result of an extravagant syncretism evident in magical traditions.
Until recently, most scholars followed Cumont in refusing to see orion dating app wiki authentic Mithraic doctrine in the Mithras Liturgy. The discovery of a large quantity of tableware as well as animal remains in a pit outside the newly excavated mithraeum at Tienen, Belgium, has also attracted new attention to the topic of Mithraic processions and large-scale feasts, begging a re-examination of the secrecy of the cult and its visibility in local diahann-carroll.infoes evidence for large-scale, semi-public feasts outside of the mithraeum itself, suggesting that each mithraeum might have had a far larger following than its relative size would imply.
Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman age. It is far more likely that Orion dating app wiki doctrine in the weak sense of the term! Even if there were major discrepancies, they would matter only in the context of the old model of an internally consistent and monolithic Mithraic doctrine.
While the Mithraists themselves never used the word mithraeum as far as we know, but preferred words like speleum or antrum cavecrypta underground hallway or corridorfanum sacred or holy placeor even templum a temple or a sacred spacethe word mithraeum is the common appellation in Mithraic scholarship and is used throughout this study.
Taking the right hand is the old Iranian form of a promise of allegiance. The Journal of Roman Studies. Ritual Competence and Mithraic Ritual. Religion as a human capacity: a festschrift in honor of E. The Mysteries of Mithras. Whilst the majority of the Oriental cults accorded to women a considerable role in their churches, and sometimes even a preponderating one, finding in them ardent supporters of the faith, Mithra forbade their participation in his Mysteries and so deprived himself of the incalculable assistance of these propagandists.
The rude discipline of the order did not permit them to take the degrees in the sacred cohorts, and, as among the Mazdeans of the Orient, they occupied only a secondary place in the society of the faithful. Among the hundreds of inscriptions that have come down to us, not one mentions either a priestess, orion dating app wiki, a woman initiate, or even a donatress. Thomas Gale, Macmillan Reference USA. Keep his commandments, thus securing for yourself an anchor-cable and safe mooring all through your life, and, when you must leave the world, having every confidence that the god who guides you will be kindly disposed.
Both the kings had erected on vast terraces a number of colossal statues seated on thrones to the honour of their ancestral gods. Mithraic studies: proceedings of the first International congress of Mithraic studies, Vol. Mithra- tauroctonoscharacteristically kneeling on the bull to despatch it. We can even see also the dog and snake.
Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity. The origins and spread of the Mysteries are matters of perennial debate among scholars of the cult. The Roman cult of Mithras. Italy I propose to omit, as the subject needs considerable discussion, and the introduction of the cult there, as witnessed by its early dedicators, seems not to have been military.
Before we turn to the Danube, however, there is one early event rather than geographical location which should perhaps be mentioned briefly in passing. Suffice it to say that there is neither archaeological nor allied evidence for the arrival of Mithraism in the West at that time, nor is there any orion dating app wiki literary reference, either contemporary or later. Their iconography is significantly different from that of the standard tauroctony e. At the same time it must be admitted that the plaques have some strange features which make it debatable if this is really Mithra s.
Most striking is the fact that his genitals are visible as they are in the iconography of Attis, which is accentuated by a high anaxyrides. Instead of the tunic and flowing cloak he wears a kind of jacket, buttoned over the breast with only one button, perhaps the attempt of a not so skillful artist to depict a cloak. The bull is small and has a hump and how old do you have to be to use a dating app tauroctone does not plunge his knife into the flank of the bull but holds it lifted.
So far, this god must be Mithras. But in sharp contrast with the usual representations [of Mithras], he is dressed in a jacket-like garment, fastened at the chest with a brooch, which leaves his genitals exposed — the iconography typical of Attis. The Greek section orion dating app wiki to a pater of the cult named Lollius Rufus, evidence of the existence of the rank system at orion dating app wiki early date. Daniels, "The Roman army and the spread of Mithraism" in John R.
Hinnels, Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studiesvol. Traditionally there are two geographical regions where Mithraism first struck root: Italy and the Danube. The movements of this legion are particularly informative. No dedicatory plaques have been discovered that might aid in the dating. Other pottery and coins from the vault are also from this era.
This matches the dates assigned to the Dura-Europos and the Sidon Mithraea. Only a little later c, orion dating app wiki. In the Cumontian scenario this episode cannot mark the definitive moment of transfer, for Mithraism in that scenario was already established in Rome, albeit on a scale too small to have left any trace in the historical or archaeological record. But the things contained in the cavern being arranged according to commensurate intervals, were symbols of the mundane elements and climates.
And on this account he bears the sword of Aries, which is a martial sign. He is likewise carried in the Bull, which is the sign of Venus. Theorizing religions past: archaeology, history, and cognition. The historical Jesus in context. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. The Mysteries of Mithra. Translated by Thomas J. Franz Cumont, one of the greatest students of Mithraism, theorized that the roots of the Roman mystery religion were in ancient Iran.
One, John Hinnells, was the organizer of the conference. Of more importance in the long run, however, was the even more radical paper presented by diahann-carroll.info. Hinnells, "Reflections on the bull-slaying scene" in Mithraic studiesvol. What, then, do the reliefs depict? And how can we proceed in any study of Mithraism?
I would accept with R. Gordon that Mithraic scholars must in future start with the Roman evidence, not by outlining Zoroastrian myths and then making the Roman iconography fit that scheme. Perhaps all that can be hoped for is a theory which is in accordance with the evidence and commends itself by mere plausibility. Cumont reconstructs a primordial life of the god on earth, but such a concept is unthinkable in terms of known, specifically Zoroastrian, Iranian thought where the gods never, and apparently never could, live on earth.
To interpret Roman Mithraism in terms of Zoroastrian thought and to argue for an earthly life of the god is to combine irreconcilables. If it is believed that Mithras had a primordial life on earth, then the concept of the god has changed so fundamentally that the Iranian background has become virtually irrelevant. Beck on Mithraism: Collected Works With New Essays. More problematic, and never properly addressed by Cumont or his successors, is how real-life Roman Mithraists subsequently maintained a quite complex and sophisticated Iranian theology behind an occidental facade.
Reviewed by Peter Edwell, Macquarie University, Sydney". The study of the ancient mystery cult of Mithraism has been heavily influenced over the last century by the pioneering work of Franz Cumont followed by that of M. His emphasis on the Iranian features of the cult is now less influential with the Iranising influences generally played down in scholarship over the last thirty years.
A Companion to Roman Religion. Costa Mesa: Mazda Pub. Nilsson, proposes such a founder from eastern Anatoliaworking in court circles in Rome. The time has come to review the principal scholarship which has argued for transmission and continuity based on the postulated similarities.
A continuity as thoroughgoing, though not quite so systematic ideologically, was proposed in several studies by G. It originated in Vedic, India, migrated to Persia by way of Babylon, orion dating app wiki, and then westward through the Hellenized East, and finally across the length and breadth of the Hellenistic-Roman world.
On its westward journey, it incorporated many of the features of the cultures in which it found itself. Yet we have good reason to believe that the establishment of at least some of those signs is to be dated at least as early as the Flavian period or in the very earliest years of the second century.
Beyond that we cannot go. This extraordinary expansion, documented by the archaeological monuments. Scriptores Historiae Augustae: Commodus.
For a brief period, especially in Rome, the cult enjoyed, along with others, a last efflorescence, for which we have evidence from among the highest circles of the senatorial order. Mithraism declined with the rise to power of Christianity, until the beginning of the fifth century, when Christianity became strong enough to exterminate by force rival religions such as Mithraism. As a mystery religion it engulfed the Roman empire during the first four centuries of our era. Mithraic sanctuaries are found from Roman Arabia to Britain, from the Danube to the Sahara, wherever the Roman soldier went.
Christian apologetics fiercely fought the cult they feared. However, the cult was vigorously opposed by Christian polemicists, especially by Justin and Tertullian, because of perceived similarities between it and early Christianity.
And with the anti-pagan decrees of the Christian emperor Theodosius during the final decade of the fourth century, Mithraism disappeared from the history of religions as a viable religious practice. One cannot fail to see the symbolism of this arrangement, which expresses in concrete terms that Christ keeps Mithras "under".
The same also applies at S. Susan Ashbrook Harvey, David G. The Oxford handbook of early Christian studies. The cult of the Persian god possibly existed as late as the fifth century in certain remote cantons of the Alps and the Vosges. For example, devotion to the Mithraic rites long persisted in the tribe of the Anauni, masters of a flourishing valley, of which a narrow defile closed the mouth.
Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Mithraic Studies, orion dating app wiki. The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. Wherefore also the evil demons in mimicry have handed down that the same thing should be done in the Mysteries of Mithras.
I sometimes permit myself to say that, if Christianity had not carried the day, Mithraicism would have orion dating app wiki the religion of the world. It had its mysterious meetings: its chapels, which bore a strong resemblance to little churches.
It forged a very lasting bond of brotherhood between its initiates: it had a Eucharist, a Supper. Gordon, Romanising oriental Gods: myth, salvation and ethics in the cults of Cybele, Isis and Mithras. In the case of Mithraism, such an ambition has often been taken for granted and linked to a no less questionable assumption, that there was a rivalry between Mithras and Christ for imperial favour. If Christianity had failed, the Roman empire would never have become Mithraist.
Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices. Mithraism proselytized energetically to the west, and for a time presented a formidable challenge to Christianity; but it is not yet known how far, or how effectively, it penetrated eastward.
A Mithraeum has been uncovered at the Parthian fortress-town of Dura-Europos on the Euphrates; but Zoroastrianism itself may well have been a barrier to its spread into Iran proper. Mithra, also spelled Mithras, Sanskrit Mitra. Analele Banatului, seria Arheologie-Istorie The Annals of Banat in Romanian and English. Ulansey, David, Mithras and the Hypercosmic Sun. Ulansey, David, The Mithraic Lion-Headed Figure and the Platonic World-Soul. Mastrocinque, Attilio, Studi sul mitraismo:il mitraismo e la magia.
Mastrocinque, Attilio, Des Mysteres de Mithra Aux Mysteres de Jesus. Turcan, Robert, The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in everyday life from archaic to imperial. Turcan, Robert, Note sur la liturgie mithriaque [Note on the Mithraic Liturgy]. Hutton, RonaldThe Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles:Their Nature and Legacy. Gawlikowski, Michal, Hawarte Preliminary Report. Sauer, Eberhard, The end of paganism in the north-western provinces of the Roman Empire:The example of the Mithras cult.
Bianchi, Ugo, The history of religions. Some portions are in English. Journal of Roman Archaeology. Lane Fox, Robin, Pagans and Christians. Roll, Israel, The mysteries of Mithras in the Roman Orient:the problem of origin. Mary Beard, John A. Price, Religions of Rome: A history.
Price, Religions of Rome: A Sourcebook. Weitzmann, Kurted. Ostia Antica Mithraeum at the Baths of Mithras.
Mithraeum A website with a collection of monuments and bibliography about Mithraism, orion dating app wiki. Cumont, "The Mysteries Of Mithra". Google Maps: Map of the locations of Mithraea.
Archaeology magazine A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America. A list of Mithraea. Article on Franz Cumont. A gallery of monuments and inscriptions. Major religious groups and religious denominations. Church of the East. Assyrian Church of the East. Separation of church and state. Religions and spiritual traditions. Retrieved from " diahann-carroll.info?
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