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pl y of fish

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A fish is any member of a group of organisms that consist of all gill -bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicatestogether forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfishlampreysand cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups.

Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishesso cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods i. Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology.

The traditional term pisces also ichthyes is considered a typologicalbut not a phylogenetic classification. The earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period, pl y of fish. Although they lacked a true spinethey possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.

Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many such as sharks became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods.

Most fish are ectothermic "cold-blooded"allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams e.

Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries see fishing or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean see aquaculture. They are also caught by recreational fisherskept as pets, raised by fishkeepersand exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role rating dating websites culture through the ages, serving as deitiesreligious symbols, and as the subjects of art, books and movies.

Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event.

Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct. An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils. The diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth.

It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like Sea squirtwhose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways.

The first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood as some sea squirts do todayalthough perhaps the reverse is the case.

Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish also contains the tetrapodswhich are not fish. For this reason, pl y of fish such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications.

Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, pl y of fish, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. Some palaeontologists contend that because Conodonta are chordatesthey are primitive fish. For a fuller treatment of this taxonomy, see the vertebrate article. The position of hagfish in the phylum Chordata is not settled.

As paraphyletic groups are no longer recognised in modern systematic biologythe use of the term "fish" as a biological group must be avoided. Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as "fish" pl y of fish not fish in the sense given above; examples include shellfishcuttlefishstarfishcrayfish and jellyfish. In earlier times, even biologists did not make a distinction — sixteenth century natural historians classified also sealswhales, amphibianscrocodileseven hippopotamusesas well as a host of aquatic invertebrates, as fish.

In some contexts, especially in aquaculturethe true fish are referred to as finfish or fin fish rise of th distinguish them from these other animals. A typical fish is ectothermichas a streamlined body for rapid swimming, extracts oxygen from water using gills or uses an accessory breathing organ to breathe atmospheric oxygen, has two sets of paired fins, usually one or two rarely three dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a tail fin, has jaws, has skin that is usually covered with scalesand lays eggs.

Each criterion has exceptions. Tunaswordfishand some species of sharks pl y of fish some warm-blooded adaptations —they can heat their bodies significantly above ambient water temperature. Lungfish have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods, gouramis have a structure called the labyrinth organ that performs a similar function, while many catfish, such as corydoras extract oxygen via the intestine or stomach, pl y of fish.

Similarly, the surface of the skin may be naked as in moray eelsor covered with scales of a variety of different types usually defined as placoid typical of sharks and rayscosmoid fossil lungfish and coelacanthsganoid various fossil fish but also living gars and bichirscycloidand ctenoid these last two are found on most bony fish. Mudskippers feed and interact with one another on mudflats and go underwater to hide in their burrows.

Fish species diversity is roughly pl y of fish equally between marine oceanic and freshwater ecosystems. Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are most diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforestsespecially the AmazonCongoand Mekong basins. Gills consist of threadlike structures called filaments.

Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a escort dating sitr app surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases pl y of fish pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills.

In some fish, capillary blood flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing countercurrent exchange. The gills push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx.

Some fish, like sharks and lampreyspossess multiple gill openings. However, bony fish have a single gill opening pl y of fish each side. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called an operculum. Juvenile bichirs have external gills, pl y of fish, a very primitive feature that they share with larval amphibians.

Fish from multiple groups can live out of the water for extended periods. Amphibious fish such as the mudskipper can live and move about on land for up to several days, [ dubious — discuss ] or live in stagnant or otherwise oxygen depleted water.

Many flicpic dating app fish can breathe air via a variety of mechanisms. The skin of anguillid eels may absorb oxygen directly. The buccal cavity of the electric eel may breathe air.

Catfish of the families LoricariidaeCallichthyidaeand Scoloplacidae absorb air through their digestive tracts. Gar and bowfin have a vascularized swim bladder that functions in the same way. Loachestrahirasand many catfish breathe by passing air through the gut. Mudskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen across the skin similar to frogs.

A number of fish have evolved so-called accessory breathing organs that extract oxygen from the air. Labyrinth fish such as gouramis and bettas have a labyrinth organ above the gills that performs this function. A few other fish have structures resembling labyrinth organs in form and function, most notably snakeheadspikeheadsand the Clariidae catfish family. Fish dependent solely on dissolved oxygen, such as perch and cichlidsquickly suffocate, while air-breathers survive for much longer, in some cases in water that is little more than pl y of fish mud.

At the most extreme, some air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp burrows for weeks without water, entering a state of aestivation summertime hibernation until water returns. Air breathing fish can be divided into obligate air breathers and facultative air breathers.

Obligate air breathers, such as the African lungfishmust breathe air periodically or they suffocate. Facultative air breathers, such as the pl y of fish Hypostomus plecostomusonly breathe air if they need to and will otherwise rely on their gills for oxygen.

Most air breathing fish are facultative air breathers that avoid the energetic cost of rising to the surface and the fitness cost of exposure to surface predators. The heart pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and exit.

The atrium serves as a one-way antechamber, sends blood to the third part, ventricle. The ventricle is another thick-walled, muscular chamber and it pumps the blood, first to the fourth part, bulbus arteriosusa large tube, and then out of the heart. The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aortathrough which blood flows to the gills for oxygenation.

Jaws allow fish to eat a wide variety of food, including plants and other organisms. Fish ingest food through the mouth and break it down in the esophagus. In the stomach, food is further digested and, in many fish, processed in finger-shaped pouches called pyloric caecawhich secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients.

Organs such as the liver and pancreas add enzymes and various chemicals as the food moves through the digestive tract. The intestine completes the process of digestion and nutrient absorption, pl y of fish. As with many aquatic animals, most fish release their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia.

Some of the wastes diffuse through the gills. Blood wastes are filtered by the kidneys. Saltwater fish tend to lose water because of osmosis. Their kidneys return water to the body. The reverse happens in freshwater fish : they tend to gain water osmotically.

Their kidneys produce dilute urine for excretion. Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that vary in function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater. The scales of fish originate from the mesoderm skin ; they may be similar in structure to teeth. Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain mass of a similarly sized bird or mammal.

At the front are the olfactory lobesa pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves. Behind the olfactory lobes is the two-lobed telencephalonthe structural equivalent to the cerebrum in higher vertebrates.

In fish the telencephalon is concerned mostly with olfaction. Connecting the forebrain to the midbrain is the diencephalon in the diagram, this structure is below the optic lobes and consequently not visible. The diencephalon performs functions associated with hormones and homeostasis. This structure detects light, maintains circadian rhythms, and controls color changes.

These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and cichlids. Many fish also have chemoreceptors that are responsible for extraordinary senses of taste and smell. Although they have ears, many fish may pl y of fish hear very well. Most fish have sensitive receptors that form the lateral line systemwhich detects gentle currents and vibrations, and senses the motion of nearby fish and prey.

Fish orient themselves using landmarks and may use mental maps based on multiple landmarks or symbols. Fish behavior in mazes reveals that they possess spatial memory and visual discrimination. Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens. Their retinas generally have both rods and cones for scotopic and photopic visionand most species have colour vision. Some fish can see ultraviolet and some can see polarized light.

Amongst jawless fishthe lamprey has well-developed eyes, while the hagfish has only primitive eyespots. Hearing is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish sense sound using their lateral lines and their ears, pl y of fish.

Experiments done by William Tavolga provide evidence that fish have pain and fear responses. Bee venom and acetic acid injected into the lips resulted in fish rocking their bodies and rubbing their lips along the sides and floors of their tanks, which the researchers concluded were attempts to relieve pain, similar to what mammals would do.

Rose of the University of Wyoming claimed the study was flawed since it did not provide proof that fish possess "conscious awareness, particularly a kind of awareness that is meaningfully like 5 top dating sites. Rose had published a study a year earlier arguing that fish cannot feel pain because their brains lack a neocortex.

Some countries, such as Germany have banned specific types of fishing, and the British RSPCA now formally prosecutes individuals who are cruel to fish.

These contractions form S-shaped curves that move down the body. As each curve reaches the back fin, backward force is applied to the water, and in conjunction with the fins, moves the fish forward. Gay dating problems streamlined body of the fish decreases the amount of friction from the water. Since body tissue is denser than water, fish must compensate for the difference or they will sink.

Many bony fish have an internal organ called a swim bladder that adjusts their buoyancy through manipulation of gases. Although most fish are exclusively ectothermicthere are exceptions. Certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures.

Endothermic teleosts bony fish are all in the suborder Scombroidei and pl y of fish the billfishestunas, and one species of "primitive" mackerel Gasterochisma melampus. All sharks in the family Lamnidae — shortfin mako, long fin mako, white, porbeagle, and salmon shark — are endothermic, and evidence suggests the trait exists in family Alopiidae thresher sharks. Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased muscle strength, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion.

Fish reproductive organs include testicles and ovaries. In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused. In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: in the most common, spermatogonia occur all along the seminiferous tubuleswhile in atherinomorph fish they are confined to the distal portion of these structures.

Fish can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the release phase of germ cells plenty of fish porn cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.

In the first type, the pl y of fish are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then enter the ostiumthen through the oviduct and are eliminated.

Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct.

Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to pl y of fish group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes. Changes in the nucleusooplasm, and the surrounding layers characterize the pl y of fish maturation process.

A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages.

Examples of oviparous fish include salmongoldfishcichlidstunaand eels. However, a few oviparous fish practice internal fertilization, with the male using some sort of intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the genital opening of the female, most notably the oviparous sharks, pl y of fish, such as the horn sharkand oviparous rays, such as skates.

In these cases, the male is equipped with a pair of modified pelvic fins known as claspers. Marine fish can produce high pl y of fish of eggs which are often released into the open water column. They are usually poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac for nourishmentand are very different in appearance from juvenile and adult specimens.

The larval period in oviparous fish is relatively short usually only several weeksand larvae rapidly grow and change appearance and structure a process termed metamorphosis to become juveniles. During this transition larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which depends on typically inadequate zooplankton density, starving many larvae.

Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fish include guppiesangel sharksand coelacanths. Some species of fish are viviparous. In such species the mother retains the eggs and nourishes the embryos. Examples of viviparous fish include the surf-perchessplitfinsand lemon shark, pl y of fish. Some viviparous fish exhibit oophagyin which the developing embryos eat other eggs produced by pl y of fish mother.

This has been observed primarily among sharks, such as the shortfin mako and porbeaglebut is known for a few bony fish as well, such as the halfbeak Nomorhamphus ebrardtii. This behavior is also most commonly found among sharks, such as the grey nurse sharkbut has also been reported for Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.

Like other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. To prevent disease they have a variety of defenses. Non-specific defenses include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps and inhibits the growth of microorganisms.

If pathogens breach these defenses, fish can develop an inflammatory response that increases blood flow to the infected region and delivers white blood cells that attempt to destroy pathogens.

The best known of these are the Bluestreak cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans. These small fish maintain so-called "cleaning stations" where other fish congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaners. These fish rely on regions of lymphoid tissue within other organs to produce immune cells. For example, erythrocytespl y of fish, macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney or pronephros and some areas of the gut where granulocytes mature.

They resemble primitive bone marrow in hagfish. Cartilaginous fish sharks and rays have a more advanced immune system. These organs house typical immune cells granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells.

They also possess an identifiable thymus and a well-developed spleen their most important immune organ where various lymphocytesplasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored. Chondrostean fish sturgeons, paddlefish, and bichirs possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass that is associated with the meninges membranes surrounding the central nervous system. Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages.

The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages develop.

Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish or teleostei include the kidney especially the anterior kidneywhich houses many different immune cells. Much like the most popular lesbian dating app immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the thymus.

Although not confirmed as yet, this system presumably will be where naive unstimulated T cells accumulate while waiting to encounter an antigen. Indeed, the adaptive immune system as a whole evolved in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrate. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies.

Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery. One well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it. Some of them survive now in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct.

Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Historically and today, most fish protein has come by means of catching wild fish. In a similar manner, fish have been tied to trade. Catching fish for the purpose of food or sport is known as fishingwhile the organized effort by humans to catch fish is called a fishery. Fisheries are a huge global business and provide income for millions of people. However, the term fishery is broadly applied, and includes more organisms than just fish, pl y of fish, such as mollusks and crustaceanswhich are often called "fish" when used as food.

Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave artbeing raised as ornamental fish in pondsand displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings. Recreational fishing is fishing for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishingwhich is fishing for profit. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rodreellinehooks and any one of a wide range of baits.

Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an "angle" hook. Anglers must select the right hook, cast most popular dating app state of maine, and retrieve at the right speed while considering water and weather conditions, species, fish response, time of the pl y of fish, and other factors.

Fish feature prominently in art and literature, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea. Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillersmost notably the novel Jawswhich spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror.

Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha ; however, contrary to popular belief, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger species that is unlikely to harm humans.

Legends of half-human, half-fish mermaids have featured in folklore, like the stories of Hans Christian Andersen. Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions. In the dhamma of Buddhism the fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in the water.

Often drawn in the form dating app bios funny carp which are regarded in the Orient as sacred on account of their elegant beauty, size and life-span. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same namebut there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation.

A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group. Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction.

Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages. Though often used interchangeably, in biology these words have different meanings, pl y of fish. Fish is used as a singular noun, or as a plural to describe multiple individuals from a single species. Fishes is used to describe different species or species groups.

The distinction is similar to that between people and peoples. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Giant grouper swimming among schools of other fish Head-on view of a red lionfish Main article: Evolution of fish.

Examples of the major classes of fish. Main article: Diversity of fish Main article: Fish anatomy. Main article: Fish scale. Further information: Fish reproduction and Spawn biology.

Egg of bullhead shark. Main article: Fish diseases and parasites. Main article: Overfishing See also: Environmental impact of fishing Main articles: Fishing industryAquacultureand Fish farming. Fishing dating app articles: FishkeepingRecreational fishingand Angling See also: Mermaid and Merman. Main article: Shoaling and schooling.

Main article: Outline of fish. Fish acute toxicity syndrome. Fishing fishing for food. List of fish common names. List of fish families. Otolith Bone used for determining the age of a fish. Journal of Comparative Physiology. B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Integrated Principles of Zoology. San FranciscoCalifornia : Benjamin Cummings. New York, New York: Scribner. A Critique pl y of fish the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system " " PDF.

Environmental Biology of Fishes. Department of the Interior. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Description and Possible Evolution". Cells and tissues of the immune system of fish. In: The Fish Immune System: Organism, Pathogen and Environment.

Axelrod, edsHong Kong: TFH Publications, Inc. Fish Conservation: A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery Resources. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pl y of fish.

A Moment of Science. The Deep Photographic Guide to the Constellations. The Diversity of Fishes. Fishes of the World. California Academy of Sciences. Sensory systems in fish. Fin and flipper locomotion. Tradeoffs for locomotion in air and water. Lists of prehistoric fish. List of transitional fossils, pl y of fish.

Living things in culture. List of edible molluscs. Lists of legendary creatures. Fermentation in food processing. Lists of fictional species. Retrieved from "

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Giant grouper swimming among schools of other fish. Head-on view of a red lionfish. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fish pl y of fish, ActinopterygiiMarine aquarium fish and Freshwater aquarium fish. Look up fish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Fish acute toxicity syndrome. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and exit. View in context And the mere sight of the torment, with his fishy eyes and mouth open, his sandy hair inquisitively on end, and his waistcoat heaving with windy arithmetic, made me vicious in my reticence. Are you looking for a long-term relationship? However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods i. pl y of fish